Abstracts volume 55 (2012) 5, 415-532

A preliminary study of the behaviour of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) imported to Poland (Short Communication)
Ireneusz Antkowiak, Jarosław Pytlewski, Anna Purczyńska and Ryszard Skrzypek

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 415-419 | PDF

This study was carried out on 26 adult water (river) buffaloes (25 females and 1 male) imported in 2006 to an eco-tourism farm in the Wielkopolska province, Poland. During the growing season, animals were kept on a logged pasture covering an area of about 15 ha. The pasture was divided into three approximately equal parts, each with a different facility available for wallowing; i.e. pond, drainage ditch and stream. Behavioural observations were carried out three times in July and August 2007 in approximately 14-d intervals, each time during one day on a different part of the pasture, always between 06.00 and 16.00. The method of registration was instantaneous scan sampling, performed at approximately 60 min intervals. On the days of observations mean daily temperature varied from 20.2 to 20.8 °C. Grazing was the behaviour shown by the highest percentage of animals in the herd (58.6%), followed by rumination (28.2%), lying down (26.5%), wallowing (12.9%) and standing (1.4%). When they had access to a pond or ditch, the proportion of animals wallowing was twice as much compared to stream access (P<0.05). It was concluded that the welfare of the investigated buffaloes was not compromised during the high summer temperatures that can be encountered in Poland. Results also indicate that the highest level of welfare can be reached in this time of year when animals are provided with access to ample facility for wallowing. Under our climatic conditions facilities with still or slowly moving water appeared to be preferred by river buffaloes. However, this study has a limitation which is short period of observation, thus it is possible that a longer and more representative period of observations could change these conclusions.


Estimation of genetic parameters and trends for energy-corrected 305-d milk yield in Iranian Holsteins
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 420-426 | PDF

Calving records from the Animal Breeding Centre of Iran collected from January 1995 to December 2007 and comprising 217973 calving events of Holsteins from 704 dairy herds were analysed using univariate and bivariate linear animal models to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for energy-corrected 305-d milk yield (ECM) in the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Genetic trends were obtained by regressing yearly mean estimates of breeding values on calving year. Average ECM increased from parity 1 through parity 3. Estimates of heritabilities were from 0.14 to 0.21 for ECM and decreased over the parities. The greatest genetic correlations were between ECM2 and ECM3 (0.96), and the greatest phenotypic correlations were between ECM1 and ECM2 (0.57) and ECM2 and ECM3 (0.57). The high and positive genetic correlations between ECM traits at different lactations are evidence for common genetic and physiological mechanism controlling these traits. There were positive and increasing phenotypic and genetic trends for ECM over the years (P<0.001). Higher heritability of the ECM in the first parity along with the high genetic correlations between first-lactation ECM with these traits in other lactations shows that higher potential exists for selecting animals for ECM based on their first parity records


Use of lactation models to develop a cow performance monitoring tool in smallholder dairy farms
Bettie S. Kawonga, Mizeck G. G. Chagunda, Timothy N. Gondwe, Serah R. Gondwe and James W. Banda

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 427-437 | PDF

Animal performance monitoring is of enormous value for management decision-making at the individual farmer level as well as for the industry and country as a whole. The aim of the study was to develop a performance monitoring tool for existing smallholder dairy production system based on lactation curves. For this purpose three equations of Wood (1967), critical exponential and double exponential were compared to evaluate their fitting and prediction ability. The full data set comprised of 11481 daily milk records for Holstein-Friesian in various stages of lactation. Data of 84 Holstein-Friesian cows was used to develop lactation curves. Within each lactation, only milk yield from calving until 330 days post-calving were used. The three models were evaluated using three criteria which were the amount of variation accounted for by the model (coefficient of determination), b-value and distribution of residuals. Based on these criteria, the double exponential equation was selected for developing the cow performance monitoring (CPM) curve. The CPM curve was developed based on the mean lactation curve with its confidence interval generating the upper and lower limits. The CPM curve had high prediction rates (sensitivity=93% and specificity=93%) hence efficient enough to guide routine management of dairy animals in smallholder farms.


Do mats matter? – Comparison of fertility traits and milk yield in dairy cows on rubber or concrete flooring
Prisca V. Kremer, Armin M. Scholz, Stefan Nüske and Martin Förster

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 438-449 | PDF

Rubber flooring in dairy cows has been discussed controversially, because different studies found as well advantages as disadvantages regarding claw health. Until today little is known regarding the effect of rubber flooring on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, the study aimed at comparing fertility and the milk yield of dairy cows on concrete or rubber flooring. Days to first breeding (DFB), days open (DO), services per conception (SC), heat detection rate (HDR), conception rate (first service; CR1st service) and the corresponding 100 days in milk (DIM) milk yield were evaluated for 139 lactation periods of 91 cows of the University Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. The cows entered the study as heifers and were housed on the same flooring system during their whole productive life. All cows underwent the same management, feeding, and climatic conditions. A mixed model procedure was used to analyse data. Cows on rubber (RSF) compared with cows on concrete flooring (CSF) showed less DFB (76.8/94.6; P<0.01), less DO (98.8/138.4; P<0.01), and no difference regarding SC (1.5/1.7; P=0.267). Furthermore, no differences regarding the 100 DIM milk yield could be established. The calculation of HDR (54.9%/27.9%) and CR1st service (39.4/29.4) showed also high advantages for the rubber flooring. It was concluded that rubber flooring affects an earlier onset of regular oestrus behaviour and improves the economically sensible fertility trait of calving interval by earlier pregnancy and less days open but does not cause higher milk yield.


Genetic and non genetic effects for lactation curve traits in Holstein-Friesian cows
Ismaïl Boujenane and Btissam Hilal

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 450-457 | PDF

The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and non genetic effects on lactation curve traits determined by the incomplete gamma function of Wood (1967) for Holstein-Friesian cows in Morocco. Data analysed included 49262 monthly records of the test-day milk yield from 4888 lactations of 3932 cows at their 1st, 2nd or 3rd parity collected during 1990 and 1999 in 232 herds enrolled in the official milk recording. In general, lactation curve traits (A, B, C, peak time [Tmax], peak milk yield [Ymax], persistency and 305 day milk yield [MY305]) were affected by herd, parity, age at calving, season of calving and year of calving. Heritability estimates were low and varied from 0.01 for parameter A to 0.10 for Ymax. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among traits varied from −0.79 to 1.00 and from −0.80 to 0.96, respectively. Genetic correlations between MY305 and parameter C were negative, but those between MY305 and all the other lactation curve traits were positive. It was concluded that selection for high peak milk yield and persistency will result in higher 305 day milk yield.


Genetic relationships between production traits and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows
Sajjad Toghiani

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 458-468 | PDF

In order to estimate genetic parameters for production traits and reproductive performance, 115465 records of production traits and 90942 records of reproductive performance from Iranian Holstein cows that were collected during 1980 to 2004 at Animal Breeding Center of Iran, were used. The estimations were performed using Restricted Maximum Likelihood method (REML) under an animal model by DF-REML and MATVEC software. Estimates of heritabilities for production traits were moderate, from 0.149 for fat yield to 0.26 for milk yield. Heritabilities for reproductive performance were low, and ranged from 0.04 for interval from calving to first service to 0.0743 for gestation length. Genetic correlations between production traits were form −0.505 for milk yield and protein percentage to 0.81 between milk yield with fat yield. Most genetic correlations between reproductive performances were found close to zero. Genetic correlation estimates of production traits with reproductive performance were from −0.513 for open days and protein yield to 0.96 for protein yield and calving interval.


Assessment of selected parameters of biochemistry, hematology, immunology and production of pigs fattened in different seasons
Anna Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Leszek Tymczyna and Marek Babicz

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 469-479 | PDF

The present research objective was to asses the difference of some biochemical, hematological, immune and pork composition parameters in two groups of pigs fattened in winter and summer season. Pig performance was assessed in vivo (fattening and slaughter value) and post mortem studies which showed a season to be a significant factor influencing a level of some hematological and biochemical indices. In winter period, fatteners blood displayed increased leukocyte and immunoglobulin content with decreased red blood cell concentration. Whereas the animals finishing in the summer season had a higher growth rate. As compared to the winter period, the fatteners were found to have a higher content of crude protein, cholesterol and triglycerides as well as GGT, AST and cholinesterase concentration. In both seasons, the finishing pig carcasses had similar level of valuable cuts. A fattening season did not affect the technological value of the slaughter material obtained.


Effect of different fattening methods on slaughter and carcass characteristics of Tuj male lambs
Mehmet Sarı, Ali Rıza Aksoy, Muammer Tilki, İsmail Kaya and Serpil Işık

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 480-484 | PDF

This study was conducted to determine effect of different fattening methods on slaughter and carcass characteristics of Tuj male lambs. Tuj lambs (n=18) were used in three groups with six lambs in each group. Group 1 was only grazed on the pasture and group 2 was supplemented 200 g concentrate with the pasture. Group 3 was supplemented 400 g concentrate with the pasture. Lambs were grazed on the pasture for 8 h/day. Concentrate with 18.5% CP and 2650 kcal/kg ME was fed to lambs in addition to pasture. At the end of three months of experiment, the lambs were slaughter and carcass characteristics and carcass measurements were evaluated. Slaughter weights of group 1, 2 and 3 were 44.10, 44.86 and 46.00 kg, respectively, and hot carcass weights were 20.66, 21.36 and 22.15 kg, respectively, hot dressing percentage 46.85, 47.56 and 47.64%, respectively. The differences between groups of slaughter and carcass characteristics and carcass measurements of lambs were not statistically significant (P>0.05). As a conclusion, supplementations of concentrate feed to grazing lambs on the pasture were no effect on slaughter and carcass characteristics and carcass measurement in lambs.


Effect of fasting on lipid metabolism and oxidative stability in fattening chicken fed a diet supplemented with organic selenium
Blanka Beer-Ljubić, Jasna Aladrović, Suzana Milinković-Tur, Maja Lazarus and Ivan Pušić

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 485-495 | PDF

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of organic selenium dietary supplementation on serum and tissue lipid composition after fattening period and after 48 h fasting in fattening chicken. The study was performed in the Ross hybrid line chicken divided into two groups: control group fed standard diet and Sel Plex group fed standard diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm organic selenium. Blood, liver, intestine and adipose tissue samples were taken upon fattening completion and after 48 h fasting. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triacylglycerol and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in serum, whereas total and free cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lipid peroxide and selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) were determined in tissue samples. During fattening period, the correlation of organic selenium with lipid metabolism manifested as decreased concentrations of serum triacylglycerols and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (P<0.05), liver triacylglycerols (P<0.05), adipose tissue cholesterol (P<0.05) and small intestine cholesterol (P<0.05), and reduced lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). Upon chicken exposure to 48 h fasting, organic selenium supplementation resulted in increased free cholesterol concentration in adipose tissue (P<0.05), GSH-Px activity in the liver (P<0.05), and selenium (P<0.05) accumulation in the liver.


Application of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacer of soybean meal in broiler chickens feeding
Monika Łukasiewicz, Dorota Pietrzak, Jan Niemiec, Jan Mroczek and Monika Michalczuk

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 496-505 | PDF

Contemporarily, the production of high-grade ethyl alcohol enables obtaining dried distillers decoction that contains post-fermentation residues of cereal grains, solubles as well as yeast cells and their metabolites multiplied in the fermentation process, which makes that product applicable also in poultry feeding. Experiments were conducted on 540 broiler chickens of COBB 500 line. One-day chicks were randomly allocated to 3 nutritional groups: K, D1 and D2, each group consisted of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The factor that differentiated the groups was the content of dried wheat decoction in the starter type feed mixture (5% and 7%). Production results (individual body weight, feed intake and mortality) of the birds were controlled in a 42-day rearing period. On the 42nd day of rearing, 6 male and 6 female chickens from each group were chosen for slaughter that had body weights similar to the average of each group according to gender. The aim of this study was to determine experimentally whether the by-product of ethanol production is suitable for replacing soybean meal in feeding broiler chickens. The application of the wheat decoction had no negative effect on production results of the chickens. The birds fed a mixture with a higher content of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were characterised by a similar body weight and better feed conversion ratio compared to the control birds. A properly-balanced (fibre, energy, amino acids) nutritional dose of the dried wheat decoction may be used as a good energy-protein component in feed mixtures for broilers. It is a rational means of DDGS management which is, simultaneously, a cheaper substitute for soybean meal.


Type I error rates and test power for some variance components estimation methods: one-way random effect model
Mehmet Mendeş

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 506-518 | PDF

This study was conducted to compare Type I error and test power of ANOVA, REML and ML methods by Monte Carlo simulation technique under different experimental conditions. Simulation results indicated that the variance ratios, sample size and number of groups were important factors in determining appropriate methods which were used to estimate variance components. The ML method was found slightly superior when compared to ANOVA and REML methods. On the other hand, ANOVA and REML methods generated similar results in general. As a results, regardless of distribution shapes and number of groups and if n<15; ML, REML methods might be preferred to the ANOVA. However, when either number of groups or sample size was increased (n≥15) ANOVA method may also be used along with ML and REML.


Development of organisation and planning in animal breeding: II. A review on breeding planning
Pera Herold, Regina Rößler, Helmut Momm and Anne Valle Zárate

Arch Tierz 55 (2012), 519-531 | PDF

Breeding planning resp. planning of breeding measures as scientific discipline within animal breeding science has developed in close connection to quantitative genetics in the middle of the last century. From the beginning, breeding planning was mainly focussed on macroeconomic resp. national targets. This viewpoint has been maintained until today. This is in conflict with existing business oriented organisational structures in animal breeding. The present study gives an overview on the development of breeding planning. Based on five recent works on breeding planning it is shown that approaches have already been developed that allow for taking micro- and macroeconomic aspects into account when looking into the organisational structures. Building on these examples, the study aims at working out further approaches to breeding planning based on enterprise resource, supply chain and value added chain planning. Breeding planning combined with consideration of organisational structures and, where necessary, with organisational analysis allows to take the requirements of the private and the public sector into account. Thereto new research fields open up within animal breeding science.



Arch Tierz Vol 55 (2012)